Gianluca Nicastro

# Eureka! Pi Day March 14th 2020. Archimedes, A Local Legend of Siracusa, Sicily

Siracusa in Sicily, Italy boasts the birthplace of the ancient 'Greek' mathematician, inventor, philosopher and scientist **Archimedes **(287–212 BC)**. **Greek, in that Siracusa was once part of Greece rather than Italy hence the dedication to numerous Greek gods and goddesses - Athena, Jupiter and Apollo temples litter this island, steeped deep in history.

The enlightened genius is celebrated in Siracusa with both a museum in Ortigia, not to be confused with the Leonardo Da Vinci museum also here, and also a ** national day - Pi Day**. His contributions to the world are abundant. 12 of the most are listed here on the

**Ancient History List**

**.**Pi is a Greek symbol which is used in various formulae and probably what he is known for the most. The Claw of Archimedes or 'the iron hand' - his architectural genius - which allowed the people of Siracusa to defend themselves against Roman invasion by sea. A warship could easily be overturned by the claw as Archimedes had taken into account the buoyancy of the water. From

*The*

*Odometer*, to

*Catapults*, to the

*Laws of the Lever*- read more about the history on the list...

Pi Day is celebrated each year on March the 14th. The mathematicians numbers are celebrated on this specific day:

**3.14 or March 14th**

The numbers represent a constant - originally this was the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, but it has various definitions now and is used in many mathematics and physics formulas.

Celebrations and learning events run globally but especially here in Siracusa where you can find school children paying tribute to Archimedes - with science and maths creations and activities of their own.

The museum is in the grand main Piazza Duomo, which is a simple 5 minute stroll from Pizza Archimedes.

There is a magnificent statue to admire on the bridge leading into Ortigia Island from Siracusa. Archimedes stands tall facing the westwards.

*Ortigia, Siracusa, Sicily, Italy - home to the genius Archimedes. *

The mathematics of nature is incredible. **Phi - **the golden ratio and **Pi** are both irrational numbers and mathematical constants and are more present in our lives that one may be aware. The Fibonacci Spiral, or The Golden Spiral, is a spiral that gets wider with every quarter turn by a factor of Phi. From roses to pineapples, we see them everywhere - in our own DNA and throughout the solar system. Without Phi, the fibonacci spiral it's beautiful patterns throughout nature would not exist. For that reason, it is known as the Golden Ratio or the Divine Ratio, as artists within the renaissance period referred to it as. Although mathematicians have yet to decipher a pattern for the infinite series of digits following the decimal in Pi, it is responsible for many patterns we see within nature. A zebra's stripes and the spots on a leopard are prime examples of patterns within biology that are defined by Pi, due to their spacing and size

**Fun facts:**

**1:** **March 14th - Pi Day is also Einsteins birthday.**

**2: March 14th - Stephen Hawkings death anniversary**

**3:** **Excerpt from The BOOK of PHI, Vol 1, 'The Living Mathematics Of Nature'** *Insta@108academy*

Did you know that the traditional deck of playing cards are a veritable and most ingenious form of calendar?

* There are 52 weeks in the year and 52 playing cards * There are 13 weeks in each season and there are also 13 cards in each suit. * There are 4 seasons and 4 suits * There are 12 months of the year and 12 Court cards (those which have faces) * The Red cards represent the Day, the Black cards the Night * If you let the Jacks = 11, the Queens = 12, and the Kings = 13, then add up all the sums of 1 + 2 + 3 + …to 13 = 91 Multiply this by 4, for the 4 suits; 91 x 4 = 364 then add 1 that is the Joker and you will arrive at the number of days in the year. Is that mere coincidence? or a greater intelligence

* Of interest is the sum of the letters in all the names of the cards; eg : add up the letters in "one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, Jack, Queen, King" = 52 !